Infl racemiform, with few or several fls mostly subtended by stipules only, or the lowest one axillary to an expanded, petiolate lf; pedicels tending to be ascending or spreading rather than erect; otherwise much like R. flagellaris, but often rising a little higher above the ground. In pockets of soil on ledges and cliffs, as well as in disturbed, often sandy habitats; N.S. and Que. to Minn., s. to Md., W.Va., and Ind., most abundant northward. June-Aug. (R. adenocaulis; R. arenicola; R. arundelanus; R. boyntonii; R. bracteoliferus; R. complex; R. conabilis; R. cordifrons; R. folioflorus; R. fraternalis; R. grandidens; R. grimesii; R. licens; R. minnesotanus; R. noveboracus; R. pauper; R. perpauper; R. pityophilus; R. plicatifolius; R. satis; R. setospinosus; R. tantulus; R. vagus)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.