Guy L. Nesom in Flora of North America (vol. 21)
glabrous or sparsely to moderately pilose distally or throughout.
basal and proximal cauline 1-nerved, narrowly oblanceolate, 60-170(-200) × 2-7(-11) mm, abruptly to gradually reduced distally (becoming linear, spreading-ascending), essentially glabrous or sparsely pilose (abaxially), gland-dotted (proximal margins piloso-ciliate).
in loose to dense, racemiform to spiciform arrays (internodes 1-7 mm).
0 or (ascending) 1-10(-80) mm.
turbinate to campanulate-cylindric, (7-)8-10 × 5-6 mm.
in (3-)4-5(-6) series, oblong, unequal, essentially glabrous, margins with hyaline borders (0.2-0.4 mm wide), erose to lacerate, ciliolate, apices usually rounded, rarely acute.
(6-)7-12(-13, mostly 9-12 in Del. and N.J.); corolla tubes pilose inside.
lengths ± equaling corollas, bristles barbellate.
= 20. Flowering (Aug-)Sep-Oct(-Nov). Old fields, pine barrens, scrub oak-pine sandhills, openings in pine, oak, and oak-hickory woods, tidal marsh edges, sandy fields, dune hollows, wet sand near beaches, edges of tidal marshes, sand to sandy clay-loam; (0-)10-500 m; Del., Md., N.J., N.C., Pa., S.C., Va.
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