Glabrous throughout; stem rather stout, simple, to 1 m; lvs thick, 10-15 cm, narrowly or broadly elliptic to ovate or oblong, sessile or nearly so and somewhat cordate-clasping; umbels lateral at few to several upper nodes; cor purplish-rose, its lobes 9-12 mm; hoods 5-6 mm, much surpassing the gynostegium, the lateral margins entire, each hood flanked by a minute process at base; horns horizontally inflexed; fr glabrous or slightly verrucose, erect on deflexed pedicels. Moist prairies; O. and s. Ont. to Minn., N.D., and Okla. June, July.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Locally frequent in prairie habitats along roadsides and railroads in a few of the western counties. Rarely in other than a prairie habitat.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 8
Wetland Indicator Status: FAC
Diagnostic Traits: principal leaves opposite, oblong-ovate, sessile or short-petiolate with subcordate base; umbels borne in distal axils; pedicels glabrous; corollas white or purple-tinged; fruits more or less glabrous, smooth to slightly warty.